By Nicole McLellan, David Pernitsky, Arthur Umble and Joseph Jacangelo
With the sudden development of the COVID-19 pandemic, utilities are looking for resources to deal with some of the relevant issues related to water and wastewater treatment. This article from Stantec provides a summary of COVID-19 information for water and wastewater professionals.
Read the full article in ES&E Magazine’s April/May 2020 issue below. Scroll down for a list of references cited in this article.
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- Biosolids Applied to Land, Advancing Standards and National Research Council of the National Academies. The National Academies Press. Washington, D.C. July 2002.
- Biosolids Recycling: Beneficial Technology for a Better Environment. U.S. EPA, Office of Wastewater Management. EPA/832-R-93-009. June 1994.
- Casanova, L. , Rutala, W. A., Weber, D. J., Sobsey, M. D. (2009). Survival of surrogate coronaviruses in water. Water research, 43(7), 1893-1898.
- CDC (2020). Coronaviruses. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Accessed on February 4, 2020 at <https://www.cdc.gov/coronaviruses/index.html>.
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- Hewitt, J., Greening, G. E., Leonard, M., Lewis, G. D. (2013). Evaluation of human adenovirus and human polyomavirus as indicators of human sewage contamination in the aquatic environment. Water Research, 47(17), 6750-6761.
- Leung, W.K., et al. (2003). Enteric involvement of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronaviruses infection. Gastroenterology, 125(4), 1011-1017.
- Liu, W., et al. (2004). Long-term SARS coronaviruses excretion from patient cohort, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(10), 1841.
- Ministry of the Environment (2008). Design Guidelines for Sewage Works. Government of Ontario.
- USEPA (2006). UV Disinfection Guidance Manual for the Final Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Federal Register.
- USEPA (1986). Design Manual: Municipal Wastewater Disinfection. Office of Research and Development.
- Wang, et al. (2005). Study on the resistance of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronaviruses. Journal of Virological Methods, 126(1-2), 171-177.
- WHO (2020). Novel Coronaviruses 2019. World Health Organization. Accessed on February 4, 2020 at <https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronaviruses-2019>.